Review on Some Virulence Factors Associated with Campylobacter Colonization and Infection in Poultry and Human | Biomedgrid llc

Introduction

Campylobacter is one of the most important four global diarrheal diseases. It is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world causing a disease called Campylobacteriosis. In developing countries, Campylobacteriosis in children under the age of 2 years are especially frequent and sometimes resulting in death [1]. Mainly C. jejuni and C. Coli are well recognized causes of human campylobacteriososis with symptoms ranging from mild watery diarrhea to serious neuropathies [2]. Poultry (particularly chicken and contaminated raw chicken carcasses) is considered to be the main source for human campylobacteriososis. Other sources such as water, raw milk, Cattle, sheep, pigs, cats, dogs, vehicles, rodents and insects are known as possible sources for not only human but also poultry Campylobacteriosis. After being colonized by Campylobacter spp. Chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions [3]. The high body temperature of Poultry species provides an optimal environment for the growth of thermophilic Campylobacter species particularly C. jejuni and C. coli which make poultry constitute the main source of human Campylobacteriosis [4]

Conclusion

Campylobacter epidemiology results should be liked with its virulence gene characterization. Although the molecular basis of pathogenicity of Campylobacter has not been fully elucidated, several virulence factors have been identified based on in vitro and in vivo studies. For example, flaA, cadF, CsrA for adhesion. iam, virB11, ciaB and pldA (invasion). CDT (CdtA, CdtB and CdtC) (cytotoxicity). dnaJ (heat shock protein). racR (reduced ability to colonize). cgtB, waaC, cstII, wlaN & ggt (ganglioside mimicry)..

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