Introduction

The work aims at assessing the quality of the environment in the city of Kazan (Russian Federation) through the study of such indicators as the fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the chlorophyll content, and the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves of birch (Betula pendula). We collected the samples at 21 sites within the city with high levels of anthropogenic stress. In the study, we evaluated the morphometric parameters of the leaf lamina (on the basis of these parameters, we later determined the level of fluctuating asymmetry), the content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves, as well as the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence…

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The purpose of the American Journal of Biomedical Science and Research is to publish scientific and technical research papers, to bring attention to the importa

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